Typography Fundamentals

Typography is one of the considerable knowledge and industry fields, based on typefaces. They are an integral part of any graphic design, publishing or typing projects. However, before clashing with fonts' choice that appears to a major issue in design, one should get acquainted with typography fundamentals, accumulated from famous typographers for centuries, including basic terms, styles and principles.

Typography is a primary integral part of any web0design project, as its main purpose is to carry information. In addition, it is an art of text decoration, so it could readable and beautiful at the same time.

Type family is usually mistaken for types or fonts. In sober fact, it is a group of fonts of the same origin, structure and image. It is a set of stylistically similar characters that you can write or print. Type family includes figures, letters and symbols. Font is a narrows concept, which is determined by several factors, such as size and style. In general, Arial is a type family, and Arial Bold is a font of this type family.

Serif fonts or Antiqua embraces all the fonts with small serifs at the top or at the bottom of their characters. They are strongly recommended for large text paragraphs because of their low readability. These are good for headlines and title lines. Serif fonts have been used since the Middle Ages period (for instance, one can pay attention to OldStyle Century). The characteristic feature: the part written at certain angle is usually thin. Beside Old Style Century, the group of old-fashioned Antiqua fonts embrace such type families (remember this term?) Centaur and Goudy Old Style.

The 18th century was a turning point in typography. It was a period of transitional serifs . The difference between wide and thin character lines is strongly visible, which may be observed in numerous fonts of the time – Baskerville, Times New Roman, Caslon, Bookman, Georgia, etc.

Later they were replaced with Slab serifs , which feature the same width of the lines.

Sans serifs or Grotesque fonts appeared at the end of the 18th century. There are four main types of sans serifs: grotesque fonts (Franklin Gothic) are very similar to serif fonts; Neo-Grotesque fonts (Arial. Helvetica), Humanist fonts (Optima, Verdana, Frutiger) are marked with thorough calligraphic letters and Geometric sans serifs are the most advanced modern fonts. The last ones include Metro, Futura, Eurostile, Rodchenko, etc.

There are also some other groups of fonts of equal importance, including Script and Decorative, but mostly they came from basic serifs and sans serif fonts .

Comparison Between Egyptian and Mesopotamian Religions and Beliefs!

The religious beliefs of the ancient Egyptians were the dominating influence in the development of their culture. The Egyptian faith was based on a collection of ancient myths, nature worship, and innumerable deities. Sumerian lives were spent serving the gods in the form of man-made statues. There was no organized set of gods; each city-state had its own patrons, temples, and priest-kings. The Sumerians were probably the first to write down their beliefs, which were the inspiration for much of later Mesopotamian mythology, religion, and astrology. Sumerians believed that the universe consisted of a flat disk enclosed by a tin dome. While the Mesopotamian’s didn’t have anything quit to scale with the pyramids, they did use and build ziggurats for religious purposes.

Both civilizations were centered on religion. Egypt believed in many gods. The gods Mesopotamia believed in tended to be absolute rulers to whom the people owed total devotion. In both civilizations religious leaders were given very high status and held in high regard. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt are two religions that believed in monotheism. Both Egypt and Mesopotamia were polytheistic, that is, they believed their worlds were ruled by more than one god. Both civilizations believed that the gods created them. Both cultures also believed that they themselves were created for the purpose of serving their gods. Both worshipers took their names from the numerous gods and the cults that honored the deities, and priests in both religions were no special clothes, and made daily offering in the temples and held annual festivals open to public.

Mesopotamian religion saw humans as the servants of the gods, who had to be appeased for protection. Egyptians believed that the gods created all humans but were also controlled by the principle of maat, or order. Unlike followers of Mesopotamian religion, the Egyptians had a strong belief in the afterlife, which they expressed by building elaborate tombs such as the pyramids. The Sumerian afterlife involved a descent into a gloomy netherworld to spend eternity in a wretched existence as a Gidim (ghost). Egyptians believed that their gods had created Egypt as a sort of refuge of good and order in a world filled with chaos and disorder. The major god for much of Mesopotamia was the sky god Enlil; later th e worship of Enlil was replaced by the worship of the Babylonian god Marduk. For Egyptians, Amen-Ra was the most powerful deity, chief of the pantheon. Statues of winged bulls were a protective symbol related to the god Sin Mesopotamia, while the ankh, a kind of cross with a loop at the top, was a prominent representation of life in ancient Egypt. The Enuma Elish tells the Mesopotamian story of creation and explains how Marduk became the chief of the gods. The Egyptian Book of the Dead was a guide for the dead, setting out magic spells and charms to be used to pass judgment in the afterlife. Ancient Nippur was the site of the chief temple to Enlil, while Babylon was the location of Marduk’s sanctuary. Thebes and the temple complex of Karnak were home to the worship of Amen- Ra. In the modern world the remains of these early religions can be seen in Egypt’s pyramids, tombs for the pharaohs, and in Mesopotamia’s ziggurats, temples to the gods. The New Year’s Festival was a major event in Mesopotamian religion, while Egypt’s most important festival was Opet. Because Egypt was the “gift of the Nile” and generally prosperous and harmonious, Egyptian gods tended to reflect a positive religion with an emphasis on a positive afterlife. In contrast, Mesopotamian religion was bleak and gloomy. Ancient Mesopotamian prayers demonstrate the lack of relationships with gods and goddesses who viewed humans with suspicion and frequently sent calamities to remind everyone of their humanity. Such was the message found in the Gilgamesh Epic.

Although the religions of both civilizations shared many similarities, the differences were vast. The most notable ones are the importance and belief of afterlife and the relationship between Gods. Because of these differences, we believe, the civilizations were different because in early times, civilizations revolved around their beliefs and values but unfortunately, there was an end to these great civilizations.

Points To Consider With Cheap Auto Insurance

The word "cheap" means different things to different people, so the first thing you will want to do is to define what "cheap" means in your vocabulary. If it means that you want the bottom line lowest of the low prices to get cheap auto insurance, and the only thing you are concerned about is what the policy costs, then this may not be for you. But if you are looking for the best value to get the most bang for the bucks, then there are multiple places, online and offline, where you can find cheap auto insurance.

You need to understand that not all auto insurance policices are done the same way. The standard policy from one insurance carrier is significantly different than the standard policy from another insurance provider. You also need to know that whatever you get, everything comes at a cost, and sometimes if you do not pay that cost up front, you will pay it later, and there is no getting around that.

For example, the reason you are carrying cheap auto insurance is because you need the coverage, either for peace of mind or to comply with your state laws, but what happens when you get into an accident? If you have a good policy, then things are taken care of with minimal effort on your part. However, with some of the cheap auto insurance policies that are available out there, getting the insurance company to pay on a claim is going to take significant time and effort on your part. If you value your time at all, sometimes think about it and attach an hourly rate to it, you will realize that after factoring in the personal time you had to spend on getting them to cover a claim, you have not saved any money at all . In fact, you paid MORE for it!

Auto insurance policy coverage is not an exact science. First of all, you have the deductible, and the amount of the deductible could be different for the various kinds of coverage. For example, you may have it set up for $ 500 deductible on collision, but a $ 1500 deductible on comprehension or fire. The deductible amount has a drastic impact on the rate that you pay, and is the amount that you will pay out of your own pocket before the insurance company pays anything. To give an example, let's say you have $ 500 deductible on collision and you get into a minor fender bender, but the estimate to repair only comes to $ 400. The insurance company will not pay anything on that, since it is less than your deductible, and in fact, that is a case where you probably do not even want to tell your insurance company about it.

There are also differences in liability. For example, if you get into an accident where the other person sustains various severe flaws. It is not unusual these days for hospital costs to go well into six figures or more. If the ceiling on your liability insurance is only $ 200,000 you could be in deep sneakers in a case like this, so be sure to check out liability limitations as well.

Shopping for cheap auto insurance is not wrong, that is a sign of a frugal shopper and is a good trait. But you need to understand what the tradeoffs are. If you are going to have insurance at all, you obviously do not want to pay more than you need to, but make sure you are getting the coverage that you think you are getting.

Do You Know What One Of The Highest Selling Automobile Components Is?

So you're one of the people that think automobile sales are the most progressing in sales probably because all of your friends and family have more that one vehicle. But you're wrong. For every automobile sold there are four or more of these critical components sold and without these things on your automobile your car would not run or work. In fact if you did not have these items on an automobile you would not be able to even sell the vehicle. Well you want to know what I am talking about do not you? Well I'm talking about the tires for your car, of course!

I'm sure you have not ever thought of this but while you own and operate your car you are wearing out tires constantly. An average survey done says that you use three sets of tires in a period of five years which is a total of 12 tires in five years depending on what kind of car you have some vehicles have more tires. If you're one of those people like I am who go out in the woods and go mudding and just mess around in the outdoors you might be having a new set of tires each year that means in a period of five years you would have use 20 tires that's a lot of tires do not you think? So you see the demand for auto tires is much greater than the demand for automobiles.

This is the reason why when rubber was first invented it was considered one of the most valuable things at the time and it was also called the "golden sap". It was one of the most valuable things at the time and still is very valuable. Initially locations such as Malaya and Singapore (then known as the Malayan Peninsula) were the world's top manufacturers of the new product and large nations with many consumers like the United States and almost all of Europe were very eager to get to this area and get their hands on this new product. This is probably why Europe has one of the largest tire companies there and why there is so much rubber coming from Europe.

Now after many years have passed the demand for rubber tires is still increasing and showing no signs of slowing down. The demand for auto tires keeps getting bigger and bigger there are more and more cars getting injected and getting put on the market which means more car tires are going to be needed to be produced.